Afeksi dan Upaya Pengusaha

sucessMenjalankan bisnis seringkali memerlukan upaya (effort) yang keras, mulai dari saat pembukaannya, pada saat beroperasi dari hari ke hari, hingga pada saat melakukan pengembangan. Maklumlah, pengusaha menghadapi berbagai ketidakpastian, kompleksitas, serta penyelesaian masalah yang seringkali harus dituntaskan dalam waktu terbatas. Mereka juga akan mengorbankan investasi pada waktu, energi, mempertaruhkan harta pribadi dan tentu saja harga diri mereka atas sukses atau tidaknya usaha mereka. Bagaimana upaya-upaya yang tidak mudah itu, bisa dijalankan dengan baik oleh seseorang pengusaha yang sukses? Sedikit banyaknya, itu bisa dijelaskan dengan memahami afeksi (mood dan perasaan)* si pengusaha. Kita tahu, afeksi kita mempengaruhi aktivitas atas upaya kita terhadap sesuatu. Pada kasus pengusaha, hal serupa juga terjadi. Afeksi, menjadi landasan dalam proses kognitif, dan kemudian berujung pada perilaku, yakni upaya-upaya yang dilakukan pengusaha tadi dalam pengelolaan bisnisnya.

Penelitian yang dilakukan oleh Maw Der Foo, seorang peneliti psikologi positif di University of Michigan (Ross Business School) mempertegas hal ini. Katanya, baik afeksi positif maupun negatif dari pengusaha punya peran dalam proses berkewirausahaan seorang pengusaha. Der Foo meneliti dengan cara unik, yakni menggunakan metode yang disebut experiences sampling methodology (ESM). Dalam metode ini, responden pengusaha menggunakan telpon selelularnya untuk memberikan laporan terkait dengan afeksi mereka, harapan (hope) dan upaya yang dilakukan atas perusahaan dalam dua minggu sekali. Penelitian ini dilakukan berturut-turut selama 15 hari.

Merujuk pada konsep affect-as-Information (Carter, 2003), Der Foo menemukan bahwa afeksi negatif pada para pengusaha menunjukkan bahwa, ada sesuatu yang kurang beres dalam upaya mereka. Artinya, masih ada gap dengan apa yang diharapkan akan terjadi. Para pengusaha sukses lazimnya tidak suka hal ini. Mereka akan segera membereskan gap tadi hingga mencapai apa yang diinginkan. Tidak heran, bila kita menemukan seorang pengusaha bisa bekerja hingga larut malam (misalnya; menunggu proposalnya disiapkan oleh staf nya), kalau memang besok adalah tenggat waktu penyerahan proposalnya. Mereka jarang mau ?menunda? tenggat waktu tersebut. Jadi, Der Foo bilang, afeksi negatif, umumnya mendorong para pengusaha menjalankan upaya atas pekerjaan pekerjaan yang menuntut immediate attention. Kalau dalam pengertian yang lebih luas, kita bisa mengatakan ini berhubungan dengan pekerjaan-pekerjaan pengusaha seperti keberadaan produk di pasar, bernegosiasi dengan pemasok, atau mengejar tenggat waktu produksi.

Bagaimana dengan afeksi positif? Bahasan Der Foo, tentang hal ini juga menarik. Tidak seperti kebanyakan orang, afeksi positif, dianggap oleh seorang pengusaha bahwa; ?OK, sekarang semua serba beres, saatnya untuk mengurus hal-hal yang terkait dengan masa datang.? Jadi, bukan; ?OK, sekarang semua beres, kita santai dulu aaah?.!?. Ibarat mobil, hal-hal yang berjalan dengan baik, tidak dibuat satu alasan untuk ?menurunkan kecepatannya? dalam berupaya. Jadi untuk afeksi positif, reaksi pengusaha adalah meningkatkan upaya mereka terkait dengan urusan atau upaya? atas pekerjaan-pekerjaan masa depan. Artinya, mereka mempersiapkan upaya antisipasi, dan melakukan perencanaan, dan melakukan pengembangan. Mungkin saja upaya itu tidak diperlukan pada saat dikerjakan, tapi lebih berorientasi pada prospek ke depan. Ini dapat saja berbentuk pengembangan pasar, produk atau bahkan justru usaha.


Post Author: Taufiq Amir

Head of Management Program – Faculty of Economics and Social Science – Bakrie University I am passionate about teaching, researching and training.

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