Berkontribusi sebagai tujuan

Di Indonesia kini banyak gerakan atau aktivitas yang mengandalkan komunitas dengan kegiatan utama berbagi. Misalnya Berlari untuk berbagi (Sandiaga Uno), Indonesia Berkebun (Ridwan Kamil), Komunitas TDA (Badroni Yuzirman), Sabang Merauke (Aichiro Suryo Prabowo, dkk), Komunitas Memberi (Yuswohadi) dan banyak lagi (majalah SWA 23 Jan-5Feb 2014). Para aktivis yang terlibat dalam berbagai upaya dan gerakan ini rupanya mempraktekkan apa yang disebut berkontribusi sebagai sebuah tujuan.

Berkontribusi sebagai sebuah tujuan adalah salah satu ciri yang kepemimpinan positif (positive leadership) yang berbeda dari kepemimpinan atau perilaku organisasi yang lazim. Dalam pendekatan kepemimpinan positif, salah satu cirinya adalah, orientasi karyawan dan organisasi memberi penekanan lebih pada kebermanfaatan bersama (greater good). Dalam proses kepemimpinan dan pengembangan organisasi atau SDM yang biasa, kita kerap diajarkan karakter tujuan yang bersifat SMART (Specific, Measurable, Align, Realistic, Time-bound), dimana ?achievement goals? lebih menonjol. Tidak ada yang salah dengan ini, tapi ?contribution goals? bisa memberi makna lebih pada pelaku dan organisasi yang tidak diperolehnya lewat achievement goals. Seperti apa persisnya?

Achievement goal sarat dengan self-intrest, mendatangkan hasil demi kegunaan dan kepentingan kita saja. Dalam memperhitungkan hasilnya, perhatian kita hanya terbatas pada manfaatnya yang kita peroleh. Tujuan seperti ini ini cenderung mengandalkan apa ?ganjaran? yang akan kita peroleh kalau kita berupaya mencapainya. Ganjaran yang tersedia sedapat mungkin yang preferable, yang kita sukai. Kalau? tujuan yang bersifat ?achivement? ini kita capai, maka ia akan memberi kepuasan diri (self-satisfaction). Perasaan puas ini seluruhnya cenderung bersifat pribadi. Perkara yang terjadi pada orang lain, adalah nomor berikutnya. Nah, ini biasanya berhubungan dengan rasa bangga atau ?self-esteem?. Sesuatu yang terkait dengan keinginan untuk dicitrakan sebagai seorang yang ?baik? atau ?hebat? di mata orang lain.

Kalau contribution goal berbeda. Yang terutama didalamnya adalah, kita memberi manfaat bagi orang lain. Disebut mengutamakan, karena kita lebih mendahulukan manfaat untuk pihak lain, ketimbang untuk kita sendiri. Motivasinya justru demi ?kebaikan memberi? ketimbang ?kebaikan memperoleh? sesuatu. Walau begitu, manfaat lebih ternyata akan datang juga pada saatnya, meski secara tidak langsung. Penelitian di bidang psikologi positif menunjukkan banyak bukti menarik, bahwa orang yang merancang contribution goal menghasilkan sebuah orientasi bertumbuh pada dirinya. Setiap kali dia sukses dengan contribution goalnya, dia ingin sesuatu yang lebih baik dan lebih bermanfaat lagi bagi lebih banyak orang. @yuswohadi menemukan ini dijalankan Karman pengusaha dari Yogyakarta yang sedang naik daun dengan Sidji Batiknya. Kita bisa pula mendapatkannya pada @handoko_h yang percaya ?sharing is a new currency? dalam melakukan program-program social entrepreneurnya di gerakan ?do.inc?.

Orientasi bertumbuh juga dialami ketika mereka yang berkontribusi memperoleh manfaat pembelajaran serta pengembangan pribadi, justru ketika mereka mendukung orang lain. Dengan sifat suportif yang dibangun, mereka akan memperoleh banyak wawasan dan ilmu baru saat mereka membantu orang lain. Sikap ?ringan tangan? mereka ternyata ?generatif?, karena mendatangkan berbagai gagasan dan peluang baru untuk mereka kerjakan.

Kebermanfaatan mendapatkan gagasan dan peluang baru ini konsisten dengan riset mutakhir tentang kreativitas dan inovasi, dimana mereka yang punya motivasi prosocial biasanya berupaya dan lebih mudah memahami perspektif orang lain (perspective taking). Ini akan menggiring individu pada gagasan yang memang berguna dan dapat diaplikasikan ? 2 elemen utama untuk menjalankan perilaku inovatif yang sukses. Mereka akan bersemangat mendapatkan akses untuk gagasan baru tersebut, untuk kemudian mempromosikan dan menerapkannya. Ini sekaligus memperkuat motivasi intrinsik berinovasi yang telah lebih dulu ada dalam diri mereka.

Efek positif lain dari berkontribusi adalah meningkatnya level keyakinan, baik pada prinsip yang dipegang, maupun pada upaya yang dilakukan. Ditambah dengan orientasi bertumbuh tadi, keyakinan ini bahkan akhirnya akan membawa mereka berkinerja tinggi pada pekerjaan utama mereka. Ya, menjadikan kontribusi sebagai tujuan akan membuat seseorang sebagai higher performer! Kinerja bekerja mereka umumnya relatif lebih tinggi dari pada rekan-rekan mereka. Pada tahap ini, siklus kebaikan akan terjadi. Memberi manfaat bagi orang lain membuat diri kita produktif dan berhasil, lalu kemudian diikuti dengan pemberian manfaat berikutnya.

Ayo, jadikan berkontribusi sebagai tujuan Anda.

 

 

Post Author: Taufiq Amir

Head of Management Program – Faculty of Economics and Social Science – Bakrie University I am passionate about teaching, researching and training.

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