Pencitraan dan inspirasi pemimpin

Salah satu calon presiden di pemilihan presiden Indonesia 2014, Joko Widodo (Jokowi), dinilai banyak orang gemar melakukan pencitraan dalam arti negatif. Sebagai Gubernur, ketika ia mendatangi pasar-pasar untuk bertemu pedagang, meninjau proyek-proyek yang sedang berprogres, melakukan inspeksi mendadak ke instansi-instansi, dianggap hanya  bertujuan mengangkat popularitas. Padahal, perspektif atas perilaku “pencitraan” seperti itu bisa sangat positif. Psikologi positif punya penjelasan soal itu.

“Pencitraan” oleh pemimpin – sepanjang perilaku ini dilakukan dengan proporsional –sesuai dengan niat untuk memonitor atau mengevaluasi, tidak berlebihan (menghabiskan sebagian besar waktunya) dan diliput oleh media dengan mekanisme pemberitaan normal, baik untuk dipraktekkan. Ditinjau dari efektifitas kepemimpinan, upaya seperti ini konsisten dengan anjuran psikologi positif, yang berasumsi pada tindakan dan pikiran baik. Ketika seorang pemimpin sering mempertontonkan kebaikan, kemuliaan, maka kita bisa berharap kebaikan dan kemuliaan itu akan menular karena menjadi tauladan. Perbuatan yang dilihat, perkataan yang didengar memberi efek pada orang lain.

Efek menular ini konsisten dengan temuan parap pakar kepemimpinan dan peneliti di bidang emosi (seperti Richard Boyatzis, Annie McKee, atau Daniel Goleman) atas apa yang mereka sebut “open loop limbic system”. Ini adalah sistem regulasi emosi dalam otak kita yang sangat tergantung dengan hubungan interpersonal kita. Perbuatan kita yang dilihat atau perkataan kita yang didengar orang lain dapat mempenguruhi emosi, pikiran dan akhirnya perbuatan orang lain itu (lihat juga tulisan tentang mirror neuron).

Para ahli psikologi klinis sudah sering membuktikan secara empirik mekanisme “open loop” ini. Bayi yang merasa cemas dan mulai merengek, dapat menjadi lega dan menjadi tenang ketika dia melihat wajah ibunya yang damai dan menunjukkan “semua aman-aman saja”. Orang yang sedang sakit, memperoleh efek menenangkan bila mendapatkan kunjungan dari orang yang disukainya. Tekanan darah dan tingkat asam lemak mereka cenderung menjadi normal. Perbuatan atau perkataan seseorang yang disukai itu dapat mengubah tingkat hormon, fungsi jantung, fungsi imun di tubuh si pasien.

Mereka yang memimpin di organisasi dapat belajar pada temuan-temuan medis ini. Bahwa semakin sering kita dilihat berbuat dan didengar menyebut hal yang baik, bawahan (atau masyarakat luas dalam kasus pemimpin lembaga layanan publik) akan semakin mudah terpengaruh. Ingat, kepemimpinan adalah urusan mempengaruhi orang lain.

Pemimpin yang mengabaikan kesempatan untuk “pencitraan”, berarti menyia-nyiakan kesempatannya mempengaruhi. Manfaatkanlah, apapun bentuknya kesempatan itu. Kesempatan bertatap muka (dalam pertemuan, rapat) misalnya, digunakan untuk menyampaikan hal-hal yang konsisten dengan nilai-nilai pribadi atau perusahaan anda. Bila perlu, seperti – Jokowi – relakan waktu dan tenaga anda mendatangi para kolega atau bawahan anda. Ketika kolega atau bawahan anda baru saja mencapai satu kinerja luar biasa, biarkan ia mendengar apresiasi langsung dari anda – lewat telpon atau dengan mendatangi. Begitupula sebaliknya, mungkin bawahan itu malah membutuhkan dukungan, karena ia baru saja mengalami hal yang kurang menguntungkan. Tunjukkan dan sampaikan bahwa anda dan organisasi peduli atas situasi mereka. Ketika organisasi secara keseluruhan tidak dalam kondisi terbaiknya, dalam cobaan dan ketidakpastian misalnya, tunjukkanlah wajah dan sikap optimis anda, serta nyatakan harapan anda.  Biarkan mereka tahu anda punya keyakinan yang layak untuk diperjuangkan secara bersama-sama. Keyakinan yang menginspirasi dan menggerakkan mereka.

“Pencitraan” dapat bermakna negatif ketika niatnya hanya berhenti pada popularitas. Ketika ia disadari berfungsi sebagai cara untuk menginspirasi dan menggerakkan, maknanya menjadi sangat positif. Bila anda pemimpin, jangan sia-siakan peluang untuk melakukannya.

Post Author: Taufiq Amir

Head of Management Program – Faculty of Economics and Social Science – Bakrie University I am passionate about teaching, researching and training.

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